Im Kontext der Symposien wurden die
unterschiedlichen Positionen zur Historie und Charakteristik des Tai Chi
Chuan besonders deutlich. Die offiziellen Familienvertreter sind sich uneins
über die Taiji-Entwicklung. Eine Unterhaltung mit Meister Wu Wenhan mit Dave
Barrett, die von Yang Jun übersetzt wurde. Der Artikel erschien im Journal
34, Frühling 2014. Es ist unklar, ob die Brisanz der Aussagen zur Chen-Stil
beim Interview und der anschließenden ersten Veröffentlichung erkannt wurde.
Die folgende Nichtauffindbarkeit im Web wird diskutiert im Zusammenhang mit
dem Thema "'Yang Family Secret Transmissions" und "Yang Family Forty
Family und die Updates hier:
Yang Luchan und die Entwicklung des Taijiquan vor dem Hintergrund der
Je nach Standpunkt gibt es sehr unterschiedliche Darstellungen
des Yang-Taijiquan-Gründers Yang Luchan. Daher bietet sich genaueres
Hinschauen an. Es wird dabei rasch deutlich, dass nur wenige
Forschende an Ideologie-Freiheit interessiert sind - es überwiegen
häufig "Sachzwänge", Loyalität, Opportunismus und kommerzielle
Aspekte. Vor den Hintergrund beider Symposien sollen einige Bereiche
behandelt werden, die damit im Zusammenhang stehen. Ausgangspunkt
sind offizielle Slogans des Veranstalters Yang Jun. Er repräsentiert
die 6. auf Yang Luchan folgende Generation. Er und der Veranstalter
des 1. Symposiums 2009, Meister Yang Zhenduo, 4. Generation der
Yang-Family, haben sich vielfach eindeutig festgelegt bzgl. der
Historie und insbesondere bzgl. Yang Luchans Taijiquan. Mit ihrer
Weltsicht stellen sie sich damit in Opposition einer großen Zahl von Forschern und Praktizierenden, die andere, teilweise viel plausiblere Meinungen
Zentrale Slogans der Symposien lauten bekanntlich "All Taijiquan
is ONE Family" und "Learn directly from the source".
"Learn directly from the source"
Hinweis: Aus Gründen der Übersichtlichkeit sollen hier zunächst
Jiang Fa, Zhang Sanfeng, Wang Zongyue und Li Yiyu nicht behandelt werden.
Die Quelle von Yang Luchans Tai Chi war das Dorf Chenjiagou und sein
Lehrer war ein Mitglied der Chen-Familie, nämlich Chen
Changxing. Was er dort lernte, hatte
weder den Namen Taijiquan noch hatte es eine Theorie. Es hieß auch
nicht "Innere Kampfkunst". Auch war es offenbar nicht die im Dorf
überlieferte Kampfkunst sondern eine andere. Demnach hat Yang Luchan
nach dem Unterricht in Chenjiagou zusammen mit Wu Yuxiang erst das
Taijiquan entwickelt - auf der Basis der ihnen zugänglichen
"Klassischen Schriften". Wu Yuxiang hatte von Yang Luchan gelernt
und war danach in der Stadt Zhaobao von Meister Chen Qingping
(1795-1868) unterwiesen worden.
Ein Großmeister, dem das Erforschen der Taiji-Geschichte sehr
wichtig ist, ist Wu Wenhan. Seinen Studien zufolge, haben Yang
Luchan und Wu Yuxiang das Taijiquan selbst entwickelt. Dabei sei die Weichheit ein wichtiger Bestandteil der Theorie,
wie sie sich in den Klassikern offenbart.
"All Taijiquan is ONE Family"
Dieser Slogan wird von den Veranstaltern begründet mit der
Behauptung, alle Familienstile wiesen identische Charakteristika
auf. Dagegen wenden sich ernstzunehmende Forscher mit ähnlichen
Argumenten wie oben ausgeführt. Die spätere Taiji-Theorie der
Chen-Familie wurde von Chen Xin geschrieben - der jedoch nach
eigenem Eingeständnis weder Tai Chi noch eine andere
Kampfkunst je praktiziert hatte. Zudem wurde im Chen-Stil laut
Meister Chen Fake nie der Begriff "Innere Kampfkunst" benutzt. Auf
Veranlassung von Wu Tunan wurde der Chen-Stil auf einem Treffen in
Peking daher auch nicht als Taijiquan klassifiziert sondern als eine
"Äußere Kampfkunst" wie Shaolin. Dafür sprechen auch die
buddhistischen Form-Namen, die die anderen Stile, die auf
Wudang/Taoismus basieren, nicht haben.
gab es nach Luchan auch keinerlei Austausch mehr zwischen der
Yang-Familie und der Chen-Familie. Nicht einmal auf dem historisch
wichtigen Treffen 1929 in Peking waren Chen-Vertreter anwesend.
Siehe das Skript "Yang Luchan und das originale Taijiquan - neue
Fragen zur Inneren Kampfkunst" (Quelle:
Anmerkungen / Annotations Yang Luchan Studies
Belege: Reprinted from Journal 25, 10th Anniversary Issue, Summer
"Wu Tunan visited the
Chen village in 1917. There were few educated people in the
village at the time and he was directed to meet Chen Xin, this was
before Chen Xin's book was published. Chen Xin was very frank in his
interview with Wu Tu Nan and gave him an account of how Taijiquan
came to the Chen village . He said that both Taijiquan and the
indigenous Chen family Pao Chui was practiced in the village but
that Taijiquan came down from Jiang Fa. He also introduced Wu to Du
Yu Wan who practiced Taijiquan and who said his art came down from
Jiang Fa who was of the Wudang lineage, Du's subsequent book on
Taijiquan in 1935 confirms this view and the authenticity and
accuracy of Wu Tu Nan's interview material.
Quelle: Arbeitskreis "Yongnian Gesellschaft von Fu Zhongwen".
Chenxin had told
Wu Tunan that he was writing a book on Taijiquan. Wu then asked Chenxin
whether he practiced Taijiquan. Chen Xin replied that his father had
let his older brother learn martial arts but had made him get an
education instead so he did not know any martial arts. Wu then asked
how he was going to write a book on martial arts if he did not
practice martial arts. Chen replied that Taijiquan is based on the
Book of Changes and that he felt that as long as an art conformed to
the Book of Changes it was Taijiquan. So he intended to use the
boxing postures of Pao Chui and relate them to the Book of Changes
and that his purpose of the book was to show how the Book of Changes
was related even to martial arts, it was not his intention of
writing a martial arts manual...."
Quelle: Arbeitskreis "Yongnian Gesellschaft von Fu Zhongwen".
A conversation with Master Wu Wenhan By Dave Barrett, Translated by Yang Jun.
This article appeared in Journal 34, Spring 2014.
In the middle of
the Qing dynasty in Hebei Province, Yongnian County, Guangfu
town had two famous Taiji masters; one was Yang Luchan
(1799-1873), and the other Wu Yuxiang (1813-1880).
At that time Yang
Luchan returned from his studies with Chen Changxin. So Yang
Luchan’s job was teaching Taijiquan in his hometown and he and
Wu Yuxiang became good friends.
At this time there was no
special term for Taijiquan. The Chen style was referred to as
Long Fist, in Yongnian County the term was Cotton Fist or
So after Master Wu Yuxiang learned from the Yang
family, he went back to Wenxian County, Zhaobao town and found a
master named Chen Qingping (1795-1868).
During that time Wu
Yuxiang’s brother, Wu Changxin found a book in a salt shop by
Wang Zongyue called the Taiji Classics. So he gave this book to
Wu Yuxiang and he brought it back to his hometown.
point both Yang Luchan and Wu Yuxiang began to
theories in this book, also they brought their local culture and
martial styles together.
Actually, they also combined what they
had learned from Chen Changxin and Chen Qinping, they combined
many things together with the theory of Wang Zongyue to create a
new martial art we now call Taijiquan.
Zongyue’s theories, they created Taijiquan
Using what they learned in Chenjiagou and Zhaobao,
combined with local Yongnian techniques, guided by Wang
They began to change these styles by taking
out the jumping and stamping techniques, hard and fast
movements. They replaced these with an emphasis of softness. The
motions became much slower
DB: Why did they take these type of motions out? WW:
They were influenced by Wang Zongyue’s concepts, which
formed a new base and foundation for the motions.
Of course they
learned from the Chen style but at that time Wang Zongyue’s book
was unknown to the Chen masters.
Both the Yang
and Wu styles developed here in Yongnian County started by using
the Chen form, “Lazy about Tying the Coat” which evolved into
our Grasping the Bird’s Tail and finished with Bend the Bow
Shoot the Tiger, so they are similar in structure from start to
The third point I’d like to make concerns Push Hands. In the
Chen style, when they used this in the old days it was a very
basic technique: just moving back and forth. Bringing this basic
exercise back to Guangfu town, Yang Luchan began to develop more
The Yang family made it’s living from
teaching martial arts, they had a very rich experience and
effective training methods. The Wu/ Hao style also developed
more complex Push Hands patterns. They contributed a good deal
to the development of Push Hands and weapons training.
say that Wu Yuxiang and Yang Luchan founded Taijiquan.
DB: These two gentlemen were close friends, they lived in the
same town, did they work together to create the form sequences
we have today? WW: Yes. They worked together and used many of the same form
names and although the two styles are different they share many
Wu Yuxiang remained in Guangfu town and continued to research
and develop Taijiquan Theory. Taiji’s theory comes from three
sources; first is Wang Zongyue, second is Wu Yuxiang and the
third is Li Yiyu. Li Yiyu was not a professional martial arts
person but he had a disciple: Hao Weizhen (1849-1920). Hao He
was his styled name. He spread Wu style to the public.
The reason Taijiquan is so popular and successful
comes from the collaboration between Wu Yuxiang and Yang Luchan.
Since Yang Luchan, the Yang style has developed practical
training methods which work quite well. The Wu/Hao contribution
has been to develop the theories of Taijiquan. The latter
generations of these two families also worked together to
combine practice and theory and improve the level of training.
Here in Yongnian County, Taijiquan developed not just by
continuing Chen style techniques. They learned from the Chen
system but they redesigned and created new forms. This is of
particular interest to me and I spend my time
development of Taijiquan.
From my point of view Taijiquan
was not simply originated in Chenjiagou.
After these two
gentlemen came back from studying Chen style they created a new
martial art called Taijiquan and Guangfu town was its
Of course there is a relationship with the Chen
style but it was not just a simple transition.
Later on, when
Chen Fake was teaching in Beijing in the 1950’s, there were
debates as to whether his style was really Taijiquan . What was missing from the Chen
style were any of the 13 kinetic energies and theories from Wang
Reprinted from Journal 25, 10th Anniversary Issue, Summer
YZD in DVD-Broschüre
Brief History of the Yang Family and Evolution of the Yang Style of
The founder of Yang style taijiquan, Yang Luchan, was
born in Yongnian County, Hebei Province, in 1799. He learned
taijiquan from the Chen family in Chenjiagou in the early 1800s.
Upon his retum to Yongnian, he became famous for his skill, and
eventually he went to Beijing to instruct many nobles of the Qing
dynasty. Because he overcame many challengers, throwing them to the
ground without injuring them, he was given the nickname "Yang the
Invincible." This same title was given to his son Yang Banhou.
help popularize taijiquan, Yang Luchan gradually deleted from the
sequence of movements some difficult actions such äs jumps and leaps
and vigorous punches and kicks.
His third son Yang Chienhou made
further revisions, and this series became known äs "Medium Frame"
Later the form was further developed by Yang Chengfu,
the third son of Yang Chienhou, into the present style, known äs
"Large Frame" because of its extended postures. The style of Yang
Banhou is known äs "Small Frame."
The Yang style which first came
from Chen style is called "Old Frame." Yang style spread äs the
three generations became renown and taught many students, not only
in Beijing but throughout China. In his era, Yang Chengfu became
the most famous and most popular representative of the family style.
His teachings were captured in books by his students, and their
publication contributed to the preservation of Yang style taijiquan.
He once said, "Taijiquan is an art with strength concealed in gentle
movements, like an iron band in a velvet glove, or a needle
concealed in cotton." Yang style taijiquan is characterized by
movements that combine vigor with gentleness and that are gentle,
natural, flexible, continuous, evenly paced, relaxed, and
synchronized with one's mind.
Today, Yang style is the most widely
known style in China and the world.
Yang Luchan (1799-1872 A.D.), had first taken the secrets of
Taijiquan outside Chenjiagou village in Henan to Beijing (c. 1860),
In fact, they even went beyond the call of duty by attributing
portions of Wu Yuxiang's writings to Zhang Sanfeng
Actually, the most important Yang Style "classics" are from Wu's
writings, except for Wang Zongyue's Taijiquan Theory, and there are
some who believe Wu even penned it as well as coined the term
"Taijiquan" around 1854, but that is another story!
Yang Luchan's supposedly unique concepts
There are many other schools of martial arts. Although there
are differences in style, they do not go beyond strength bullying
weakness and slowness giving way to speed, the strong beating the
weak and slow hands yielding to fast. All of this is native physical
endowment and has noting to do with what is acquired through serious
Source: Wang Tsung-Yueh’s Treatise on Taiji Quan ‘Yang Family
Secret Transmissions’. Compiled and translated by Douglas Wile
There are very many schools, and although they are distinguished by
different regimens, they do not go beyond the strong bullying the
weak, and the slow yeilding to the fast. The strong beating the
weak, slow hands yeilding to fast hands, these are all the result of
natural ability and are not related to the results of diligent
study. Examine the saying "four ounces deflects 1,000 pounds," it is
evident this is not achieved by strength; observe an old man
defending himself from a gang, how can this be done by speed?
Many Chinese thinkers in the early eighteenth Century had an
admiring fascination for bushido
This Symposium brings you an abundance of exciting programs
throughout the entire event.
The theme is aptly named: “Directly
from the Source”
and not only expresses the authenticity of the
presentations, but also indicates the depth of resources. These
presentations bring together the wisdom of Chinese culture and the
precision of modern science through master’s workshops,
evidence-based literary review and academic sessions, and other
special events designed to foster an exchange of knowledge and
THE GRANDMASTERS AND TAI CHI CHUAN STYLES The Grandmasters of the
family styles are the big stars of the program. These lineage
holders shine each day in more than one sparkling format, generously
sharing the uniqueness of their forms and revealing their
traditional wisdom. As a participant, you get to meet each one
several times. All of them deliver a “keynote” speech, each
presenting major components of his style and revealing his personal
insights into tai chi chuan’s philosophy and unique precepts.
the styles are linked by shared characteristics, by history, and by
a common philosophy, into one “family” of Tai Chi Chuan.
“WHAT IS IN A NAME”
The following article was once originally part of Master
Chen’s former webpage www.chenzhonghua.org. It gives us
Grandmaster Hong Junsheng’s first-hand account of what actually
happened in the talked about encounter in a martial arts
tournament in Beijing between Great Grandmaster Chen Fake and Wu
Tunan. I thought it would benefit everyone interested in
Taijiquan history to read this article and learn of Grandmaster
Hong’s first-hand knowledge of this encounter. I want to thank
Shifu Chen Zhonghua for allowing me to re-publish this article
WHAT IS IN A NAME:
At one of the first government sponsored traditional martial
art competitions in Beijing, in 1952, Chen Fake was invited to
attend, as one of the judges.
The famed Wu Tunan (also known as the Northern Star of
Taijiquan) was in charge. A discussion came up, with regards to
categorization of styles,leading to a great deal of controversy
as to where Chen Style Taijiquan belonged. Some suggested that
it belonged to the External Division. At the time, the slow and
gentle nature of Yang style Taijiquan was considered the
standard of Taijiquan. What Chen Fake practiced certainly did
not fall fall into this category.
Others countered that it is, after all, called Chen Style
Taijiquan, so it should be included as part of the Internal
Division. Master Wu Tunan did not concur. He felt that Chen
Style should be treated as an external style, similar to
Shaolin. Someone turned to Chen Fake, Master Chen, you are the
standard bearer of the Chen Family, is it external or internal?
Chen Fake answered, If the revered master Wu thinks it is
external, then it is external! We did not have this distinction
at home. (Later on, in a remarkable reversal of logic, this
statement was actually quoted by some as proof that Chen Style
Taijiquan is not the original source of Taijiquan, since family
member Chen Fake did not even acknowledge it as an internal
Hong Junsheng, a disciple of Chen Fake, was understandably
upset about this treatment of Chen Style. He began his Taiji
studies with Wu style, and later switched to Chen Style. For
him, Chen and Wu were both authentic Taijiquan styles, and both
He begged his teacher for an explanation. Master Chen’s
answer had nothing to do with either Chen or Wu styles: My
ancestors invented it. My great grandfather practiced it
[translator’s note: This refers to Chen Changxing, who taught
Yang Luchan, the creator of Yang Style]. My father practiced it.
I practice it now. We do not call it Taiji. We do not have a
name for it. You can call it anything you want, I will still
practice it the same way I was taught. I don’t care what they
put in the name!
Chen Fake was certainly not a philosopher. However one might
appreciate the profound depth of his perspective. He saw the
name as nothing more than a shallow symbol of the object. What
Chen Fake learned and taught was Chen Style Taijiquan. The
change of the name by others or the views of others will never
affect what it is.
Is Chen Style Taijiquan the original source of Taijiquan? Is
Chen Style internal? State whatever opinion you have and present
all your research papers. You might even patent the name, and
forbid the Chen Village masters and direct lineage holders from
using the name. But can you change the fact that it is their art
and what they do is the right way? You will never change its
essential nature. It is what it is.